As noted in Chapter 3, attention disorders are the consequence of weaknesses in neurological systems. These weaknesses may have occurred before, during, or after birth. They can be the result of any number of overlapping causes, each with varying degrees of significance. And there can be dozens of internal and/or external factors that contribute—or that have contributed—to each underlying cause.
If you understand the constellation of possible causes behind neurological weakness, you can reverse those causes—and improve your child’s neurological functioning.
This chapter lists and describes many factors that may give way to poor health and subsequent neurological weakness: toxic lifestyles, inadequate nutrition, dairy consumption, candida growth, fluoride toxicity, heavy metals (and mercury amalgam fillings), prenatal and postnatal conditions, seizures, and the dangerous chemicals that infiltrate all aspects of our daily lives.
The brain is particularly susceptible to neurological malfunction when 1.) highly toxic chemicals or heavy metals have crossed the blood/brain barrier and/or 2.) the brain does not receive adequate nutrition, especially amino acids and omega-3 fatty acids. (A lack of minerals and vitamins, significantly limit or compromise brain function.) Inadequate nutrition and brain poisoning can be easily traced to the toxic food we eat daily, while heavy metals such as mercury and aluminum can get into the brain from vaccinations. Other dangerous chemicals found in carpet, varnishes, paint, toxic cleaning products, and other household goods enter the brain through inhalation or skin contact.
While reading, keep in mind that the information presented here isn’t meant to induce blame or guilt for past decisions or behaviors, which were likely carried out with the best of intentions and available knowledge. Rather, this chapter, like the rest of the book, exists to help you create a future of smart, healthy choices that improve neurological functioning and overall well-being.
Poor general health (characterized by low energy, frequent or chronic sickness, irritability, allergies, constant runny nose, and other conditions) is a sign that the body is not working optimally. And if the body as a whole is not working optimally, then brain function is likely to be deficient. The first step toward healing neurological disorders—and, consequently, attention disorders—is to actively work on healing the body as a whole. Avoiding a toxic lifestyle and adopting a natural living lifestyle (discussed in Chapter 5) is the best possible course of action for total body healing.
The toxic lifestyle significantly contributes to poor health and neurological disorders. Check out this list of toxic “don’ts” (some of which this or other chapters discuss in greater detail):
In short, toxic living is a lifestyle choice—encouraged by multinational corporations, governmental agencies, medical authorities, and the media. It deprives the body of required nutrition, feeds us potentially harmful chemicals, and uses drugs to manage resultant conditions, creating even more toxicity and disease. Believing in and following this synthetically based paradigm is the primary reason for disease and neurological disorders.
The all-pervasive, ongoing, deliberate manipulation of our food supply—from the farm to the shelf, and at every step in between—is the single greatest contributor to poor health. Without a doubt, the contamination of our food with synthetic chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, preservatives, food dyes, stabilizers, artificial flavorings, synthetic vitamins, growth hormones, tranquilizers, antibiotics, and the like.) combined with production techniques that decimate the intrinsic nutritional value of raw food (genetic engineering, irradiation, high-temperature processing, hydrogenation, and so on) is a root cause of poor health. Our bodies and brains are not designed by nature to operate on nutritionally stripped, chemically laden food day in and day out. Daily intake of microscopically small doses of toxins (and massive doses of toxins, such as from vaccinations) contributes dramatically to ill health—and therefore reduced brain function. For more information on the dangers of conventional food, read Chapter 2 of my book The Beginner’s Guide to Natural Living, pages 33–67.
Why are so many children allergic to cow’s milk? Because they don’t need it—not because there is something wrong with them. The revered pediatrician Benjamin Spock warned that “cow’s milk…has definite faults for some babies. It causes allergies, indigestion, and contributes to some cases of childhood diabetes.” Frank A. Oski, former director of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University, bluntly stated: “There’s no reason to drink cow’s milk at any time in your life. It was designed for calves, not humans, and we should all stop drinking it today” (italics mine).
The intestines of some babies wind up bleeding after cow’s milk has been consumed, resulting in iron loss. After age four, many children become lactose intolerant. For these children, milk proteins seep into the immune system and can result in chronic runny noses, sore throats, hoarseness, bronchitis, and recurring ear infections—the symptoms of “milk allergies.” Some children’s bodies react to cow’s milk protein as a foreign substance, then produce high levels of antibodies in fending it off. These antibodies also destroy the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas, possibly paving the path toward diabetes.
Human breast milk is approximately five and a half percent protein, designed to double an infant’s birth weight in about 180 days. Cow’s milk, on the other hand, is about fifteen percent protein—it’s meant to double the weight of a calf in just forty-seven days. Human babies who are fed cow’s milk may only digest about half of the protein, straining their developing kidneys. When cow’s milk mixes with an infant’s digestive juices in the stomach, large curds develop because of the casein content, and that can lead to health problems. Whereas human milk is sterile, cow’s milk is not, and feeding it to infants can introduce harmful organisms to a weak immune system. There’s more saturated fat as well, which increases cholesterol in the infant. Pasteurization of cow’s milk kills some harmful microorganisms, but it also destroys important lactobacillus bacteria and vitamins, which are normally found in human breast milk. Pasteurization also creates long-chain fatty acids that are more difficult for the intestinal tract to process.
The high protein content of milk produces an acidic environment in the body. To correct the acidic environment, the body will withdraw calcium from the bones—which are alkaline—to bring the PH level back in balance. Although dairy is high in calcium, it can’t be fully assimilated because of the high phosphorous content—calcium absorption occurs when there is a low phosphorous to high calcium ratio. The excess calcium floating in the blood, from the bones and from the milk, is then filtered through the kidneys, precipitating kidney stones later in life.
In addition to these issues, we also get the chemical stew from the aggressive agricultural practices found in the dairy industry. Dairy cows are unnaturally kept pregnant 24/7 to produce twenty times their normal amount of milk. They are housed in unsanitary conditions (often on conveyer belts). This leads to disease of the udder and to the dairy cows in general (including bovine leukemia, found in eighty-nine percent of dairy cows). Under these conditions, a cow’s average lifespan drops from twenty years to about four. Antibiotics are used to slow disease, tranquilizers are used to calm frayed nerves, and artificial growth hormones are injected to increase milk production. The cows’ feed is laden with pesticide and herbicide residue and other chemicals. Remember—what cows consume, we consume too.
Candida albicans is a type of parasitic yeast-like fungus that inhabits the intestines, genital region, mouth, esophagus, throat, and even the brain. Ordinarily, candida lives uneventfully in our intestinal tract and is “checked” by other microorganisms and friendly bacteria. But candida will multiply out of control and cause a host of health problems if these friendly bacteria are destroyed and/or the immune system is compromised—often a consequence of exposure to mercury or certain drugs, including antibiotics.
Symptoms of candida overgrowth include nasal congestion and discharge, nasal itching, blisters in the mouth, abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, constipation, diarrhea, vaginal discharge or burning, frequent urination, burning on urination, and bladder infections. Oral thrush, jock itch, and athlete’s foot are all consequences of candida overgrowth, as are other ongoing health problems. If the immune system remains weak long enough, candida can spread to all parts of the body and cause an additional plethora of health woes, including mood swings, anxiety, and difficulty concentrating. People who have candida infections also often have food allergies. And, very importantly, candida overgrowth can inhibit proper assimilation of nutrients, including essential amino acids, which will adversely affect brain function.
Consuming foods high in sugar, yeast, or carbohydrates can lead to candida overgrowth, as can antibiotics if they are used frequently. A weakened immune system also allows candida to proliferate—so build the immune system with a natural living lifestyle (see Chapter 5). Other ways of controlling candida include eliminating processed foods and consuming ample amounts of acidophilus and other friendly bacteria (such as the Bio-K brand found in natural food stores). A visit to a natural doctor, such as a naturopathic physician, is also advised.
Part of the controversy about fluoride results from confusion over calcium fluoride, used in the original tooth decay-prevention tests, and sodium fluoride, a highly toxic industrial waste product from the phosphate fertilizer industry. Unfortunately, it’s sodium fluoride that’s added to city water supplies. Approximately sixty-seven percent of American cities fluoridate municipal water.
Sodium fluoride kills most of your bodies’ beneficial enzymes. It also attacks the hypothalamus gland (which regulates hunger, thirst, body temperature, and one’s sense of safety and comfort). Furthermore, over-ingestion of fluoride impairs the thyroid gland, which regulates metabolism. (Could this contribute to the alarming rate of obesity in the United States?)
Additionally, sodium fluoride may weaken bones (a condition called skeletal fluorosis), and can cause dental fluorosis in children. Dental fluorosis, a mineralization disorder of the teeth that degrades the enamel, is an irreversible condition caused by excessive ingestion of fluoride during the tooth-forming years.
Sodium fluoride is also a very powerful central nervous system toxin that can adversely affect human brain functioning and diminish IQ, even at low doses.
Contrary to the propaganda we hear in the media, the largest survey ever done on tooth decay, conducted by the National Institute of Dental Research, found no difference in tooth decay between fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities in the United States, as measured in terms of decayed, missing, and filled teeth. Word about fluoridated water’s risks and ineffectiveness may be getting out: Over eighty U.S. cities have rejected fluoridation since 1996. (Europe has almost unanimously rejected it—only two percent of the entire continent allows water fluoridation.)
If your community’s water supply is fluoridated, it’s best to avoid drinking tap water unless a filter is used to remove the fluoride. A reverse osmosis filter is a good choice. For more information on fluoride dangers, visit the Fluoride Action Network’s Web site at www.fluoridealert.org.
Mercury is such a deadly substance that even minimal exposure, as little drop on your hand, can prove fatal. It’s the second most toxic element after plutonium and is estimated to be 500 to 1,000 times more toxic than lead. This heavy metal burrows deep into the cells of the brain and other organs and can lead to serious central nervous system damage and crippling neurological disorders. It is a neurotoxin that acts directly on the tissues of the central nervous system. Mercury is even more neurotoxic than lead, cadmium, or arsenic. Unfortunately, it is used in vaccines and amalgam fillings, both widespread treatments that are designed to improve our health—and that may make us sick.
Mercury and Vaccines
Numerous studies indicate that the behavioral and psychological disposition of children diagnosed with autism is nearly identical to people who have confirmed mercury poisoning. Often, children diagnosed with autism began to show the symptoms shortly after vaccination. Many vaccines are (still) preserved with mercury, and children can easily exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) recommended dose of “allowable” mercury exposure through vaccination. (For an in-depth and concise overview on the direct link between vaccination and autism symptoms and other neurological disorders, visit my other website, Stop Mandatory Vaccination.)
Though not all children vaccinated exhibit signs of autism, many do show other neurological processing difficulties or are diagnosed with ADD/ADHD, dyslexia, and other problems that can be linked, in part, to mercury poisoning.
Mercury amalgam (“silver”) fillings contain about fifty percent mercury, along with silver, tin, and zinc. Conventional dental authorities allege that mercury is “locked” into the filling because the atomic structure of mercury is “bound” to the silver, rendering the state of the mercury biologically inactive. However, studies have shown that mercury vapor escapes on a regular basis and is absorbed by the rest of the body. This vapor release increases while eating or drinking hot foods and liquids, during chewing (friction releases the vapor), or if an amalgam filling is located next to a tooth that has been restored with gold or other metals. Mercury vapor released from amalgam fillings has been shown to accumulate in organs, the brain, fetal tissue, and maternal milk. This low-level (but continuous) mercury exposure can cause mercury poisoning, which will produce a variety of health problems, including neurological disorders. (Tremors are a common indicator of mercury neurotoxicity.)
If you decide to have amalgam fillings removed, choose an experienced holistic dentist who follows specific protocols that will protect you against mercury exposure during the removal process. Sudden intense introduction of vaporous mercury that may occur during improper removal of fillings can be more dangerous than keeping the fillings in your teeth.
When you take into consideration the amount of mercury exposure mothers receive from mercury amalgam fillings and fish consumption, combined with what children receive because vaccinations and their own mercury amalgam fillings and fish consumption, there shouldn’t be any surprise at all why we now face an epidemic of neurologically challenged children. (And that’s just taking into account mercury exposure without including the other toxic chemicals that afflict us.)
Heavy metal poisoning is the toxic accumulation of heavy metals—such as mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic—in the soft tissues of the body. Toxic heavy metals will displace essential minerals, like zinc, copper, magnesium, and calcium, and can cause cognitive and behavioral problems or even mental retardation. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic can enter the body through environmental factors (e.g., lead paint or polluted dirt) or through the diet. In fact, extremely toxic industrial waste is legally “recycled” into the nation’s fertilizer supply, which is dumped into our food supply.
Heavy metals can easily accumulate in the brain and cause neurological problems because they are so widespread in our diet and environment. Adopting a natural living lifestyle significantly reduces this potential exposure.
During pregnancy, the overall toxicity level and nutritional level of the mother will directly affect fetal brain development. Physical and emotional stress can further obstruct the normal, healthy functioning of a developing brain by suppressing the immune system. A mother’s lack of movement during pregnancy (because of watching TV, working at the computer, mandatory bed rest, and so forth) may impair proper fetal neurological development. On the other hand, too much movement may create a stressful environment for the fetus, also impairing neurological development.
A brain that fails to grow to normal size in utero due to malnutrition, prescription drugs, nicotine, or harmful intoxicants—such as alcohol or cocaine—can contribute to neurological disorders. Ultrasound, frequently used to monitor the health of the developing fetus and also to ascertain the sex of the fetus for curious parents, produces sound waves that stress the developing vestibular system.
The delivery process itself may cause problems if the baby passes too quickly or not quickly enough through the birth canal, or if the baby is delivered by Caesarean section. Head trauma caused either during the birthing process (by prolonged labor, forceps delivery, or suction) and/or from an accidental injury is a potential cause of neurological disorders—such trauma can result in structural damage to the brain, as well as damage to the vestibular system (inner ear) and other neural pathways.
Babies delivered in a hospital setting with the best of intentions and care are brought into the world in a bright, reflective, possibly noisy environment filled with numerous and noxious odors—then they’re quickly scrubbed clean of the slimy coating that is meant to protect them from such an abrupt change of environment. Such experiences can increase stress on the infant, particularly if its systems are already vulnerable.
After birth, coordinated activity—including crawling—helps to organize the neural pathways in the brain (use of “baby walkers” should therefore be avoided). And conversely, inactivity (e.g., watching TV or playing video games) and/or a lack of coordinated physical activity can significantly limit the proper growth and function of neurological systems. Ear infections can severely affect vestibular system function, which in turn can significantly reduce or otherwise affect overall neurological processing ability. People diagnosed with ADD/ADHD often have had recurrent ear infections. The correlation between ear infections and decreased neurological functioning is frequently overlooked—if there are/were recurrent ear infections, then vestibular system damage should be suspected.
A higher than usual incidence of seizures is seen in people with mental retardation and a variety of other neurobehavioral disorders, such as autism, Tourette’s syndrome, attention disorders, and reactive attachment disorder (RAD). A child who “spaces out” on a regular basis—mimicking ADD/ADHD—may be experiencing brain seizures, evidencing a seizure disorder rather than an attention deficit. An EEG/QEEG neurological assessment can identify whether seizures are in fact taking place. These tests become even more important if stimulant medication—which can induce brain seizures—is being taken to address ADD/ADHD.
EEG is the abbreviation for electroencephalography, meaning the process of detecting and recording brainwaves. The brainwaves are recorded with sensors placed on the scalp. The “Q” in QEEG refers to the “quantitative analysis” of the EEG recording. QEEGs, developed in the 1970’s and 80’s, use computerized statistical and analytical techniques, whereas the EEG does not. The QEEG procedure is an extension of (not a substitute for) clinical EEG testing; it is also complementary to tests such as the MRI, which image brain structure, not function.
The EEG/QEEG is a measure of brain function or activity. It measures changes in patterns of brain function over short periods of time. This type of analysis is completely noninvasive, cost effective, and does not involve exposure to radioactive agents.
The EEG has been used in neurology, psychiatry, and other fields of medicine since the 1950’s. One of its first uses was to identify periods of brainwave activity during sleep, even when the study subject appeared quiet and motionless. (If the subject was awakened during this time, he often reported that he had been dreaming.) EEGs, along with QEEGs, continue to be used in peeking “below the surface” of behavior to assess underlying brain processes. They are primarily utilized to identify brain seizures.
Often, seizures do not cause obvious convulsions, characterized by the rolling of the eyes, biting the tongue, and so forth. Convulsions are seen in “grand mal” type seizures. It is common to have seizure activity that is associated with lapse in awareness rather than convulsions. “Petit mal” seizures, as well as other types of “partial seizures,” are usually accompanied by a brief loss of awareness. As noted above, the seizure event may not be recognized as a seizure and may be described as “spacing out” or “glazing over.” This loss of awareness is often mistaken for inattentiveness in the classroom. It is useful to evaluate those experiences with EEG/QEEG tests, because seizures are often the culprit. These assessments allow for health practitioners to evaluate the neurological events underlying behavioral problems. They help in suggesting specific treatment interventions and monitoring changes in the nervous system produced by interventions.
Pesticides, herbicides, and other chemical poisons that find their way into the food chain can cause numerous health problems and impair neurological functioning. Remember Agent Orange, the toxic spray used by the U.S. military in Vietnam in clearing away forests? It ultimately caused health problems for our veterans and birth defects in their children. Two of the toxic chemicals found in Agent Orange, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, are sprayed on land used to grow feed for livestock. One of these chemicals is dioxin, used in 2,4,5-T. Even more toxic than DDT, dioxin causes cancer, birth defects, miscarriages, and almost immediate death in lab animals at even one part per trillion. In 1974, Environmental Protection Agency official Dianne Courtney called dioxin “by far the most toxic chemical known to mankind.” Yet dioxin is legally used on the food we eat.
According to the Environmental Working Group (www.ewg.org):
More than a million preschoolers consume at least fifteen pesticides a day in food, according to our latest study of government data. Some 324,000 kids age five and under exceed federal safety standards every day for just one neurotoxic insecticide, methyl parathion. Methyl parathion is the most toxic organophosphate insecticide approved for use on food. It’s so toxic that the EPA’s “daily” safe dose for the compound is 0.000025 milligrams per kilogram of human body weight. A 154 pound person would exceed the EPA daily dose by eating less than two one-millionths of a gram of the chemical (.002 milligrams). Some apples and peaches are so contaminated with methyl parathion that a kid can exceed the government’s safe daily limits with just two bites. A 154-pound adult eating such an apple would ingest only half of the current safe daily dose, whereas it would put a forty-four pound child sixty-seven percent over his or her “safe” limit.
Organophosphate pesticides inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, a key molecule required to permit the regeneration of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions and thereby control nerve-to-muscle transmission. Many organophosphorus compounds damage nerves directly, creating adverse conditions that are largely irreversible. Animal studies show that organophosphorus compounds damage the central nervous system. Neurological poisoning may take months or years to show up. Concentrated organophosphorus compounds are used to produce nerve gas, and a few drops are quickly lethal. Symptoms of poisoning include stomach and intestinal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and “pinpoint” pupils. These pesticides change chemically as they age, becoming even more toxic.
Dozens of pesticides and herbicides used today disrupt the human endocrine system. In late 1995, a multidisciplinary group of international experts (medical doctors, university scholars, environmentalists, and others) gathered in Erice, Sicily, for a work session on “Environmental Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Neural, Endocrine, and Behavioral Effects.” The committee wrote:
“Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain function throughout life. Interference with thyroid hormone function during development leads to abnormalities in brain and behavioral development. The eventual results of moderate to severe alterations of thyroid hormone concentrations, particularly during fetal life, are motor dysfunction of varying severity, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, hydrocephalus, seizures, and other neurological abnormalities. Similarly, exposure to man-made chemicals during early development can impair motor function, spatial perception, learning, memory, auditory development, fine motor coordination, balance, and attention processes; in severe cases, mental retardation may result. Because certain PCBs and dioxins are known to impair normal thyroid function, we suspect that they contribute to learning disabilities, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other neurological abnormalities (italics mine).”
As if it weren’t enough that toxic pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides are sprayed onto food crops, most manufacturers then lace what we eat with a cornucopia of harmful synthetic chemicals during processing. Since 1959, more than twenty-five chemical food additives have been banned because they cause cancer or other serious diseases in laboratory animals. Dozens of other additives are currently under review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. You might be familiar with some of these substances: food dyes, preservatives, flavorings, stabilizers, anti-mold agents, and so on. Unfortunately, our bodies can’t use these chemicals; physiologically, we react to them as we would to a poison.
Disturbingly, by the time an American child is five years old, he will have consumed more than seven and a half pounds of food additives through preservatives, emulsifiers, lubricants, bleaching agents, synthetic sweeteners, flavor enhancers, and artificial colors and flavors. Research has linked some synthetic additives with hyperactivity and behavioral changes—as well as with asthma (which frequently afflicts those diagnosed with ADD/ADHD), cancer, and other serious ailments.
The late Ben F. Feingold, MD, author of Why Your Child Is Hyperactive (Random House, 1996), was among the first medical professionals to maintain that synthetic food dyes, preservatives, and flavorings can cause severe behavioral changes in both children and adults. Feingold’s research helped get some toxic synthetics banned in the United States. His pioneering work also led to the Feingold Diet for attention disorders (discussed at www.feingold.org), which eliminates all foods containing synthetic dyes and food flavorings. Also eliminated are the synthetic antioxidant preservative chemicals butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), as well as aspirin and other salicylates (naturally occurring compounds found in some fruits, vegetables, and toiletries). Thousands of children who have followed this diet showed marked improvement in behavior—and often recovered from attention disorders because their brain chemistry was normalized.
Brominated fire retardants, known as PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), are added to everyday products, such as computers, cars, TVs, and furniture. They are persistent in the indoor environment and are also bioaccumulative, building up in people’s bodies over a lifetime. Children may ingest significant amounts of toxic fire retardants from the dust found inside the house. In minute doses brominated fire retardants impair attention, learning, memory, and behavior in laboratory animals.
Other sources of potential chemical contamination to children include carpet, varnishes, toxic household cleaning products, and body products with synthetic chemicals.
As you can see, we live in and ingest a toxic world—funded by mega-multinational corporations and endorsed by the government. The food we eat is highly polluted, genetically modified, irradiated, stripped of nutrition, and packed full of synthetic chemicals. Unnecessary vaccinations add extremely dangerous levels of highly toxic heavy metals to the developing brains and bodies of children. Chlorine and fluoride wreak havoc on the body. Antibiotics contribute to candida growth and the destruction of the immune system. Birth trauma, sedentary lifestyles, ear infections, and other factors (besides toxicity) can contribute to neurological dysfunction. And when you put it all together, it’s easy to see how diagnoses of ADD/ADHD, autism, dyslexia, and other neurological disorders manifest. Is there hope? You bet there is: the answers are found in natural living and alternative medicine.
 Information this section is based on three sources (which contain additional extensive citations and references):
Herman Aihara, Basic Macrobiotics (New York: Japan Publications, Inc., 1985).
John Robbins, Diet For a New America: How Your Food Choices Affect Your Health, Happiness and the Future of Life on Earth (Tiburon, CA: H J Kramer, 1998).
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, “Vegan Children: Healthy and Happy.” <http://www.peta.org/mc/factsheet_display.asp?ID=100>.
 Paul Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods: Asian Traditions and Modern Nutrition (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2002), 32.
 Award-winning investigative reporter Christopher Bryson, in his book, The Fluoride Deception (Seven Stories Press, 2004), describes in detail the part fluoride played during the development of the atomic bomb, subsequent cover-ups, and the foisting of this substance on the American public.
 Fluoride Action Network, “Dental Fluorosis.” 25 August 2005. <www.fluoridealert.org/dental-fluorosis.htm>.
 Ibid., “Facts About Fluoridation.” March 2002. <www.fluoridealert.org/fluoride-facts.htm>.
 Ibid., “Health Effects: Fluoride & Tooth Decay (Caries).” <http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/teeth/caries/index.html>.
 Neurotoxicity is defined as adverse effects on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system caused by exposure to a toxic chemical. Symptoms of neurotoxicity include muscle weakness, loss of sensation and motor control, tremors, cognitive alterations, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. For more information, see http://www.trufax.org/general/chemical.html.
 Morton Walker and Julian Whitaker, Elements of Danger: Protect Yourself Against the Hazards of Modern Dentistry(Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company, 1999), 135.
 Sallie Bernard, A. Enayati, L. Redwood, H. Roger, and T. Binstock, ARC Research, “Autism: A Novel Form of Mercury Poisoning.” <http://www.mercola.com/2000/oct/1/autism_mercury.htm >. For more information, contact ARC Research, 14 Commerce Dr., Cranford, NJ 07901; (908) 276-6300 (phone) and (908) 276-1301 (fax).
 Matthew Shaffer, “Waste Lands: The Threat of Toxic Fertilizer.” 3 May 2001. <http://pirg.org/toxics/reports/wastelands/index.html>.
 Animal products accumulate these toxins in their fat, and the accumulated amounts are passed on to those who eat meat.
 Robbins, 321.
 Environmental Working Group (http://www.ewg.org). This group does an excellent job of citing their sources of information, often from government agencies.
 Marc Lappe, Chemical Deception: The Toxic Threat to Health and the Environment (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991), 86-87.
 Richard Alexander, “Birth Defects Caused by Herbicides, Insecticides, and Industrial Chemicals that Disrupt the Endocrine System,” The Consumer Law Page. <http://consumerlawpage.com/article/endocrine.shtml>.
 Endocrine toxicity is defined as any adverse structural and/or functional changes to the endocrine system (the system that controls hormones in the body) that may result from exposure to chemicals. Endocrine toxicity can harm human and animal reproduction and development. For more information, see http://www.trufax.org/general/chemical.html.
 T. Colborn, F. Vom Saal, and P. Short, eds., “Environmental Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Neural, Endocrine, and Behavioral Effects,” Princeton Scientific Publishing (1998): 1–9. The report is available at http://www.worldwildlife.org/toxics/pubs/con_5.htm.
 Christopher S. Kilham, The Bread & Circus Whole Food Bible: How to Select and Prepare Safe, Healthful Foods Without Pesticides or Chemical Additives (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison Wesley Longman Publishing, 1991), 4.
 Ben F. Feingold, Why Your Child Is Hyperactive (New York: Random House, 1996).
 Renee Sharp and Sonya Lunder, Environmental Working Group, “High Levels of Toxic Fire Retardants Contaminate American Homes.” <www.ewg.org/reports/inthedust/summary.php>.
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